In 1830 the United States Congress passed the Indian Removal Act which required that Native Americans be removed from desirable and relocated to Indian Reservations west of the Mississippi River. This Act was contested in the United States Federal Court System. In 1832 the United States Supreme Court ruled in favor of the Cherokee Nation allowing the Cherokee people to remain in their homeland in Georgia.
However, in 1835 a splinter group of the Cherokee nation signed the Treaty of New Echota. As the result of this action, the entire Cherokee Nation was forced to move to a reservation in Oklahoma. The journey caused by this forced relocation is known as the Trail of Tears.